A number of women and minority entrepreneurial groups oppose project contracts and claim that PPPs have a disproportionate impact on small businesses, particularly those owned by women and minorities. These groups argue that EPAs are anti-market and discriminatory.   In particular, groups, including the National Association of Women Business Owners, voted against the PLA and, in 1998, a hearing was held in the House of Representatives on the issue of minority opposition to government-mandated PLA.  The National Black Chamber of Commerce opposes the use of LTOs because of the small number of black trade unionists in the construction industry. According to the NBCC, the introduction of PLA discriminates against black-traffic workers, who are generally not unionized, and also prevents contractors from employing casual workers.   According to the Pan-Asian American Chamber of Commerce in the United States, most of its members are small businesses that are unduly affected by THE PLA, in part because of rising costs and lower benefits for workers.  A PLA is a comprehensive pre-lease agreement that allows owners and contractors to access a highly skilled workforce required for complex projects. A PLA: Sets working conditions in advance so that contractors are able to provide specific offers. Eliminates cost overruns and project delays.
Saves on property, quality and cost for homeowners and/or taxpayers. Promotes the growth of our communities. ATPs are particularly useful for large, complex construction projects because they simplify the process and facilitate project delivery between deadlines and budgets. Through negotiation, a PLA sets salaries, hours and schedules before the start of the project. THE AEPs do not impede competition or limit tenders to union contractors. A PLA is available to all contractors who accept its terms. No surprises, no cost overruns, no appointments and no budget with the work done safely by well-trained construction workers. The first uses of Project Labor Agreements in the United States date back to several dam projects in the 1930s, including the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington, the Shasta Dam in California and the Hoover Dam in Nevada.  Modern PLPs developed particularly from those used in the construction sector during the Second World War, at a time when demand for skilled labour was needed, construction unions controlled 87% of the national market and public construction spending had increased significantly in a short period of time.