Control of the exchange. Some countries will require, on the basis of the issue of clearing foreign currency payments, that the verification and administrative approval of government authorities be ensured before a cross-border technology transfer agreement comes into force. Such monetary control policies can make it more difficult to exchange currencies or pay cross-border. And even if the lawyer can use German to discuss, he usually cannot understand the nuances in the language. Such nuances are extremely important in legal agreements. In the event of a dispute between the parties leading to arbitration, translation costs are also a necessary expense. The role of the regulator: how to promote a regulatory environment that allows and promotes valuable structures for technological exchange and collaboration? Can or should official royalties be structured to encourage the creation of collaborative or open approaches to licensing? When is the coercive instrument of the compulsory licence or administrative authorization appropriate? Patent Pools: The definitions of patent pools are very different, but the essential idea is that participating patent holders agree to license – some are called „common licensing systems.“ As a general rule, the technology is in a well-defined area, or specific patents can be identified. A closed patent pool would limit access to technology. In some cases, this type of agreement could attract the attention of competition authorities, particularly where it excludes legitimate competition from those who do not participate in the pool.

An open patent pool would allow anyone entrusted to the parties to access the technologies covered. This issue must be expressly included in the agreement, for example. B that the agreement will not enter into force until after the approval or authorization of the administration, and that the risk resulting from the failure of the agreement to enter into force must be adequately distributed. The international transfer of technology is one of the most important forms of technology exchange between countries. Due to the diversity of legal systems, legal systems and legal cultures of different professionals, lawyers are required to pay particular attention to the following issues in the development and revision of international technology agreements. Open innovation, open source, peer production on the basis of commons and distributed innovation: this cluster of related concepts is found in current discussions on innovation models that emphasize a collaborative or common technology platform for innovation. The term „open source“ comes from a software development model that guarantees access to human-readable „source code“ and allows others to use and adapt and redistribute the software, whether modified or not. The Mozilla Firefox web browser is a well-known example of open source software. Open source is now used as a metaphor or description of other areas of innovation in which one technological platform is left to others to use and adapt it, and on the basis of which innovation can in turn be shared, for example open source biotechnology. The possibilities and applications of technology to address the challenges of climate change are many and varied. Reduction technologies can range from improvement to the efficiency of existing technologies (for example. B hybrids for motor vehicles) to completely new technologies (such as the biological production of hydrogen by new strains of algae).

Adaptation technologies can range from new treatments for tropical diseases to new varieties of plants that are facing increasing abiotic stress, such as drought and salinity. The need for innovation can therefore include a relatively simple adaptation of existing technologies and new advanced technologies. With deepening reforms and openness to the outside world and the continued implementation of the Belt and Road initiative, the share of international technology in the entire trade regime continues to